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. 2017 Jun;29(3):295-301.
doi: 10.5021/ad.2017.29.3.295. Epub 2017 May 11.

The Effect of Rhus verniciflua Stokes Extracts on Photo-Aged Mouse Skin

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Free PMC article

The Effect of Rhus verniciflua Stokes Extracts on Photo-Aged Mouse Skin

Hannah Hong et al. Ann Dermatol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RV) has traditionally been used in Korea as an indigenous food (Rhus chicken soup) and as an herbal medicinal plant. While the anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties of RV have been actively studied in the medical field, its antioxidant effects in the skin that resist the reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes and fibroblasts is less understood.

Objective: We designed to evaluate the effects of R. verniciflua Stokes extract (RVE) on the photo-aged skin by an in vitro experiment using human fibroblasts and an in vivo experiment using a photo-aged murine model.

Methods: For the in vitro experiments, human fibroblasts irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) B were treated with RVE or vehicle, and the growth levels and the expression level of type 1 procollagen were compared. For the in vivo experiment, photo-aged mice irradiated with UVB and UVA were administered drinking water with or without RVE, and histological changes and the expression level of type 1 procollagen and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-13 were compared.

Results: In vitro experiments using fibroblasts irradiated with UVB showed that RVE promoted growth and significantly increased the expression of type 1 procollagen as compared to the control group. In the photo-aged mice, RVE increased collagen content in the dermis and promoted the synthesis of type 1 procollagen without any visible decrease in MMP-13 as compared to control group.

Conclusion: In addition to the previously reported antioxidant effects of RVE, oral intake of RVE effectively inhibited photo-aging in hairless mice by enhancing collagen synthesis.

Keywords: Aging; Antioxidant; Collagen; Fibroblasts; Rhus.

Conflict of interest statement

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: The authors have nothing to disclose.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1. Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract (RVE) stimulated the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts with or without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in vitro. Cultured human primary dermal fibroblasts were exposed to various concentrations of RVE (0%~100%) and evaluated by MTT assay. (A) Negligible effects were observed at the 0.01% to 1.00% RVE concentrations; however, the cell count increased by 8% and 12% relative to the control at 5% and 10% RVE concentrations, respectively. In 50% and 100% RVE concentrations, cytotoxicity was observed. (B) When irradiated with UV, cell growth was observed up to RVE concentration levels of 10%, but cytotoxicity occurred at 50% and 100%. Normal control (NC) had no RVE treatment and no UV irradiation. The values used are the mean±standard error (SE) from 96 wells (A) and 12 wells (B), respectively. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 compared to the control group (0% RVE).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2. Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract (RVE) increased expression of type 1 procollagen mRNA in human dermal fibroblasts without or with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in vitro. Cultured human primary dermal fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of RVE (0%~10%) and evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. (A) The type 1 procollagen mRNA levels were increased at all RVE concentrations. In particular, 0,1%, 0.05%, 0.5%, and 1.0% RVE increased levels significantly. (B) When irradiated with UVB, the type 1 procollagen mRNA increased at RVE concentration levels of 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 1%, proportionally to the concentration level. Values shown are the mean±standard deviation (SD) from 60 mm dishes. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 compared to the control group (0% RVE).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3. Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract (RVE) increased dermal thickness and collagen density in photo-aged murine skin. The dermal effects of RVE were evaluated by measuring dermal thickness (C) using H&E staining, ×100 (A). Dermal thickness was defined as the distance from the subcutaneous fat to the dermo-epidermal junction. To measure collagen density (D), we performed Masson trichrome staining, ×100 (B). We used the histogram function of Photoshop software to evaluate collagen density. RVE significantly increased collagen density compared to the water only control. UV+R: RVE treated group (UV light+RVE water), UV+W: water control group (UV light+no RVE water), Sham+W: normal control group (Sham light+no RVE water). UV: ultraviolet light irradiation, Sham: sham light irradiation, W: water supply, R: R. verniciflua Stokes extracts supply.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4. Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract (RVE) affected type 1 procollagen but not matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-13 in photo-aged murine skin. (A) Based on Western blot analysis, (B) RVE increased the production of type 1 procollagen collagen up to the level of the normal control group but did not affect MMP-13 levels. UV+R: RVE treated group (UV light+RVE water), UV+W: water control group (UV light+no RVE water), Sham+W: normal control group (Sham light+no RVE water). GAPDH: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, UV: ultraviolet light irradiation, Sham: sham light irradiation, W: water supply, R: R. verniciflua Stokes extracts supply.

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