Purpose: The aim of this systematic review is to compare the clinical outcomes of patients treated with different trochleoplasty procedures, the rate of complications and recurrence of patellar dislocation.
Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed, in accord with the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases were comprehensively searched using the keyword combinations, "Dejour trochleoplasty", "Bereiter Trochleoplasty", "Albee Trochleoplasty", "Recession Trochleoplasty", "Trochlear Dysplasia", "Instability", "Adult", "Clinical Outcome" and "Surgery".
Results: Three-hundred and ninety-two knees in 371 patients were included. Bereiter U-shaped deepening trochleoplasty was the most commonly used technique for the treatment of trochlear dysplasia in the included studies with the lowest rate of recurrence and post-operative ROM deficiency. On the other hand, Dejour V-shaped deepening trochleoplasty showed the highest mean post-operative value of Kujala score with 79.3 (SD 8.4) points. Statistical differences were found in terms of redislocation rate between Goutallier procedure and Bereiter trochleoplasty (p < 0.05) and in terms of post-operative osteoarthritis between Bereiter and Dejour procedures (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Bereiter trochleoplasty seems to be the most efficiency procedure in terms of post-operative patellar redislocation, post-operative osteoarthritis and ROM, but the highest mean post-operative Kujala score is obtained by Dejour procedure. Therefore, none of the surgical techniques analysed highlighted a real superiority. Randomised clinical trials are needed to establish whether of available surgical technique is the best to treat patient with trochlear dysplasia. The clinical relevance of this paper is that the three most popular trochleoplasty techniques are associated with significantly improved stability and function, showing a relatively low rate of osteoarthritis and pain, and a moderate rate of complications.
Level of evidence: Systematic review, Level IV.
Keywords: Knee; Patellar instability; Patellofemoral; Trochlear dysplasia; Trochleoplasty.