Structure and Development of the List of Prohibited Substances and Methods

Med Sport Sci. 2017:62:39-54. doi: 10.1159/000460699. Epub 2017 Jun 1.


The list of prohibited substances and methods (the List) is the international standard that determines what is prohibited in sport both in- and out-of-competition. Since 2004, the official text of the List is produced by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the international independent organization responsible for promoting, coordinating, and monitoring the fight against doping in sport. Originally based on the prohibited lists established by the International Olympic Committee, the List has evolved to incorporate new doping trends, distinguish permitted from prohibited routes of administration, and adjust to new analytical and pharmacological breakthroughs. In this chapter, the elements that compose the List as well as the updates over the years are presented.

MeSH terms

  • Doping in Sports / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Doping in Sports / prevention & control*
  • Humans
  • International Cooperation
  • Performance-Enhancing Substances / pharmacology
  • Performance-Enhancing Substances / standards*
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / standards*
  • Sports*
  • Substance Abuse Detection / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Substance Abuse Detection / standards*


  • Performance-Enhancing Substances
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations