Low Retinol-Binding Protein and Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Severe Outcomes in Children Hospitalized with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection and Respiratory Syncytial Virus or Human Metapneumovirus Detection

J Pediatr. 2017 Aug;187:323-327. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.04.061. Epub 2017 May 31.


Retinol binding protein and vitamin D were measured in children aged <5 years hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection and respiratory syncytial virus and/or human metapneumovirus detections. Low vitamin levels were observed in 50% of the children and were associated with significantly elevated risk of the need for intensive care unit admission and invasive mechanical ventilation.

Keywords: intensive care; mechanical ventilation; paramyxovirus; respiratory infection; respiratory tract; vitamin levels.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Intensive Care Units, Pediatric / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Metapneumovirus / isolation & purification
  • Paramyxoviridae Infections / blood*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / blood*
  • Respiration, Artificial / statistics & numerical data
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections / blood*
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human / isolation & purification
  • Retinol-Binding Proteins / analysis*
  • Vitamin D / blood*


  • Retinol-Binding Proteins
  • Vitamin D