Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure (BP) is among the most prevalent forms of cardiovascular disease and occurs in approximately one of every three adults in the United States. The purpose of this Evidence Analysis Library (EAL) guideline is to provide an evidence-based summary of nutrition therapy for the management of HTN in adults aged 18 years or older. Implementation of this guideline aims to promote evidence-based practice decisions by registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs), and other collaborating health professionals to decrease or manage HTN in adults while enhancing patient quality of life and taking into account individual preferences. The systematic review and guideline development methodology of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics were applied. A total of 70 research studies were included, analyzed, and rated for quality by trained evidence analysts (literature review dates ranged between 2004 and 2015). Evaluation and synthesis of related evidence resulted in the development of nine recommendations. To reduce BP in adults with HTN, there is strong evidence to recommend provision of medical nutrition therapy by an RDN, adoption of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern, calcium supplementation, physical activity as a component of a healthy lifestyle, reduction in dietary sodium intake, and reduction of alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers. Increased intake of dietary potassium and calcium as well as supplementation with potassium and magnesium for lowering BP are also recommended (fair evidence). Finally, recommendations related to lowering BP were formulated on vitamin D, magnesium, and the putative role of alcohol consumption in moderate drinkers (weak evidence). In conclusion, the present evidence-based nutrition practice guideline describes the most current recommendations on the dietary management of HTN in adults intended to support the practice of RDNs and other health professionals.
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