Comparison of Effects Produced by Physiological Versus Traditional Vocal Warm-up in Contemporary Commercial Music Singers

J Voice. 2018 Mar;32(2):200-208. doi: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2017.03.022. Epub 2017 May 31.


Purpose: The present study aimed to observe whether physiological warm-up and traditional singing warm-up differently affect aerodynamic, electroglottographic, acoustic, and self-perceived parameters of voice in Contemporary Commercial Music singers.

Methods: Thirty subjects were asked to perform a 15-minute session of vocal warm-up. They were randomly assigned to one of two types of vocal warm-up: physiological (based on semi-occluded exercises) or traditional (singing warm-up based on open vowel [a:]). Aerodynamic, electroglottographic, acoustic, and self-perceived voice quality assessments were carried out before (pre) and after (post) warm-up.

Results: No significant differences were found when comparing both types of vocal warm-up methods, either in subjective or in objective measures. Furthermore, the main positive effect observed in both groups when comparing pre and post conditions was a better self-reported quality of voice. Additionally, significant differences were observed for sound pressure level (decrease), glottal airflow (increase), and aerodynamic efficiency (decrease) in the traditional warm-up group.

Conclusion: Both traditional and physiological warm-ups produce favorable voice sensations. Moreover, there are no evident differences in aerodynamic and electroglottographic variables when comparing both types of vocal warm-ups. Some changes after traditional warm-up (decreased intensity, increased airflow, and decreased aerodynamic efficiency) could imply an early stage of vocal fatigue.

Keywords: Aerodynamics; Semi-occluded vocal tract; Singing voice; Tube phonation; Warm-up.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Acoustics
  • Adult
  • Auditory Perception
  • Electrodiagnosis
  • Female
  • Glottis / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Occupations*
  • Phonation*
  • Self Concept
  • Singing*
  • Voice Quality*
  • Voice Training*
  • Young Adult