Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a family of oxygen molecules with an unpaired electron and play an important role in homeostasis and pathogenesis. The reactive molecules modify lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, and modulate a wide range of cellular functions. The importance of ROS in infection has been established through clinical and in vitro studies. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in HIV pathogenesis, the impact of ROS on immune responses in HIV patients, and ROS-mediated regulation of HIV infection. Future studies on the interplay between ROS and HIV infection may offer a new strategy for prevention and treatment.
Keywords: HIV; Immune response; Reactive oxygen species.