Background: Anopheles sinensis is a dominant natural vector of Plasmodium vivax in China, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea. Recent genome sequencing of An. sinensis provides important insights into the genomic basis of vectorial capacity. However, the lack of a physical genome map with chromosome assignment and orientation of sequencing scaffolds hinders comparative analyses with other genomes to infer evolutionary changes relevant to the vector capacity.
Results: Here, a physical genome map for An. sinensis was constructed by assigning 52 scaffolds onto the chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This chromosome-based genome assembly composes approximately 36% of the total An. sinensis genome. Comparisons of 3955 orthologous genes between An. sinensis and Anopheles gambiae identified 361 conserved synteny blocks and 267 inversions fixed between these two lineages. The rate of gene order reshuffling on the X chromosome is approximately 3.2 times higher than that on the autosomes.
Conclusions: The physical map will facilitate detailed genomic analysis of An. sinensis and contribute to understanding of the patterns and mechanisms of large-scale genome rearrangements in anopheline mosquitoes.
Keywords: Chromosomal evolution; Fluorescence in situ hybridization; GRIMM; Inversion fixation; OrthoDB; Synteny blocks.