Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is accompanied by metabolic disturbances and cardio-metabolic disorders. Fatty acids (FAs) might be a link between psoriasis and its comorbidity. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum concentrations of FAs and to investigate their association with the disease activity, markers of inflammation and possible involvement in psoriatic comorbidity: obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. We measured 14 total serum fatty acids content and composition by gas-liquid chromatography and flame-ionization detector after direct in situ transesterification in 85 patients with exacerbated plaque psoriasis and in 32 healthy controls. FAs were grouped according to their biologic properties to saturated FA (SFA), unsaturated FA (UFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 PUFA. Generally, patients characteristic included: Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), Body Mass Index, inflammatory and biochemical markers, lipid profile and presence of psoriatic comorbidity. We have observed highly abnormal FAs pattern in psoriatic patients both with and without obesity compared to the control group. We have demonstrated association of PASI with low levels of circulating DHA, n-3 PUFA (p = 0.044 and p = 0.048, respectively) and high percent of MUFA (p = 0.024) in the non-obese psoriatic group. The SFA/UFA ratio increased with the duration of the disease (p = 0.03) in all psoriatic patients. These findings indicate abnormal FAs profile in psoriasis which may reflect metabolic disturbances and might play a role in the psoriatic comorbidity.
Keywords: Fatty acid; MUFA; Metabolic syndrome; PUFA; Psoriasis; SFA.