Prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in the incarcerated population

HIV Med. 2017 Nov;18(10):756-763. doi: 10.1111/hiv.12522. Epub 2017 Jun 6.


Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR)-associated mutations among treatment-naïve, incarcerated individuals with HIV-1 infection in the USA as well as the class TDR and antiretroviral (ARV) mutations present at baseline.

Methods: Patients over the age of 18 years were included in the study if they had been diagnosed with HIV infection, if their HIV infection was managed through telemedicine and if they were incarcerated in the State of Illinois Department of Corrections between 10 July 2010 and 29 April 2016. Additionally, the patients were required to have a documented genotype and be ARV-naïve. A medical chart review was conducted to assess demographic information, disease burden, and risk factors for acquiring the virus.

Results: The inclusion criteria were met for 105 patients. A total of 24 patients (23%) had a clinically significant mutation associated with resistance to any drug class. The prevalence of mutations conferring clinically significant resistance was 19% for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), 18% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and 4% for protease inhibitors (PIs). Five per cent of patients had dual-class TDR to both NRTI and NNRTI drug classes and 2% of patients had mutations to both NNRTI and PI drug classes. There was no significant increase in the prevalence of clinically relevant drug resistance mutations based on demographics, burden of disease, or risk factors for acquiring the virus.

Conclusions: A high prevalence of TDR was identified in the ARV-naïve incarcerated population. The results of this study indicate an increased prevalence of TDR in a largely unstudied incarcerated population, demonstrating the need for increased monitoring of resistance in HIV-infected patients world-wide.

Keywords: HIV; Transmitted drug resistance; antiretroviral therapy; mutations.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Disease Transmission, Infectious
  • Drug Resistance, Viral*
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • HIV Infections / transmission*
  • HIV Infections / virology*
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation
  • Prevalence
  • Prisoners*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult