Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Brazilian Green Propolis Encapsulated in a γ-Cyclodextrin Complex in Mice Fed a Western-Type Diet

Int J Mol Sci. 2017 May 26;18(6):1140. doi: 10.3390/ijms18061141.


Ageing is often accompanied by chronic inflammation. A fat- and sugar-rich Western-type diet (WTD) may accelerate the ageing phenotype. Cell culture studies have indicated that artepillin C-containing Brazilian green propolis exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known regarding its anti-inflammatory potential in mouse liver in vivo. In this study, female C57BL/6NRj wild-type mice were fed a WTD, a WTD supplemented with Brazilian green propolis supercritical extract (GPSE) encapsulated in γ-cyclodextrin (γCD) or a WTD plus γCD for 10 weeks. GPSE-γCD did not affect the food intake, body weight or body composition of the mice. However, mRNA levels of the tumour necrosis factor α were significantly downregulated (p < 0.05) in these mice compared to those in the WTD-fed controls. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of other pro-inflammatory markers, including serum amyloid P, were significantly (p < 0.001) decreased following GPSE-γCD treatment. GPSE-γCD significantly induced hepatic ferritin gene expression (p < 0.01), which may contribute to its anti-inflammatory properties. Conversely, GPSE-γCD did not affect the biomarkers of endogenous antioxidant defence, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase-4, paraoxonase-1, glutamate cysteine ligase and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Overall, the present data suggest that dietary GPSE-γCD exhibits anti-inflammatory, but not antioxidant activity in mouse liver in vivo. Thus, GPSE-γCD has the potential to serve as a natural hepatoprotective bioactive compound for dietary-mediated strategies against chronic inflammation.

Keywords: Brazilian green propolis; antioxidant defence; artepillin C; diet; inflammation; mice.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Feed
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Body Composition / drug effects
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Diet, Western*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Mice
  • Propolis / chemistry*
  • Propolis / pharmacology*
  • Transcriptome
  • gamma-Cyclodextrins / chemistry*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose
  • gamma-Cyclodextrins
  • Propolis