We evaluated differences in the compositions of faecal microbiota between 52 end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and 60 healthy controls in southern China using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing (16S ribosomal RNA V4-6 region) methods. The absolute quantification of total bacteria was significantly reduced in ESRD patients (p < 0.01). In three enterotypes, Prevotella was enriched in the healthy group whereas Bacteroides were prevalent in the ESRD group (LDA score > 4.5). 11 bacterial taxa were significantly overrepresented in samples from ESRD and 22 bacterial taxa were overrepresented in samples from healthy controls. The butyrate producing bacteria, Roseburia, Faecalibacterium, Clostridium, Coprococcus and Prevotella were reduced in the ESRD group (LDA values > 2.0). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that Cystatin C (CysC), creatinine and eGFR appeared to be the most important environmental parameters to influence the overall microbial communities. In qPCR analysis, The butyrate producing species Roseburia spp., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Prevotella and Universal bacteria, were negatively related to CRP and CysC. Total bacteria in faeces were reduced in patients with ESRD compared to that in healthy individuals. The enterotypes change from Prevotella to Bacteroides in ESRD patients. The gut microbiota was associated with the inflammatory state and renal function of chronic kidney disease.