Multiple sclerosis: Pathology, diagnosis and treatments

Exp Ther Med. 2017 Jun;13(6):3163-3166. doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.4410. Epub 2017 Apr 28.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurodegenerative disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The onset of MS has been typically observed in individuals aged from 20 to 40-years, with the female to male ratio of 1:2. MS appears as abrupt onset of focal sensory disturbances that is accompanied by unilateral painless damage of vision, double vision, limb weakness, unsteadiness of gait, and bowel or bladder symptoms. Whereas the exact etiology of the disease is unknown, observational research has suggested genetic and environment influences through an underlined pathophysiology widely believed to be autoimmune in nature. Indeed, plaque of demyelination inside of the CNS with relative conservation of axons remains the clinical symptoms of MS. However, considerable advances in understanding the pathology have contributed to an early diagnosis, particularly the exact neuroanatomical setting of plaques. Accordingly, magnetic resonance imaging has been considered as the primarily adjunctive modality for the constant detection of abnormal white matter. In addition, the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid contents has also been of interest for the diagnosis to discriminate other affections such infection or vasculitis. These resulted in a broad variety of therapies that considerably control the activity and change the course and prognosis of the disease. In the present review, we evaluate the current state of knowledge on MS with emphasis on the pathology itself, the diagnosis and common therapeutical approaches accurately used.

Keywords: diagnostic criteria; multiple sclerosis; pathophysiology; treatment options.