Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vitamin D insufficiency is associated with preterm delivery and preeclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes.
Material and methods: An observational study of 198 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and HbA1c were measured in blood samples in early (median 8 weeks, range 5-14) and late (34 weeks, range 32-36) pregnancy. Kidney involvement (microalbuminuria or nephropathy) at inclusion, smoking status at inclusion, preterm delivery (<37 weeks) and preeclampsia (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and proteinuria) were registered. Vitamin D supplementation of 10 μg daily was routinely recommended.
Results: Thirty-nine (20%) of the 198 women delivered preterm and 16 (8%) developed preeclampsia. Vitamin D insufficiency (<50 nmol/L) was present in 68 women (34%) in early pregnancy and in 73 women (37%) in late pregnancy. Preterm delivery occurred more frequently in women with vitamin D insufficiency in late pregnancy (27% vs. 15%, crude odds ratio 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.0-4.3, p = 0.04). After adjustment for preexisting kidney involvement, HbA1c in late pregnancy and smoking the association became nonsignificant (adjusted odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 0.8-3.7). Preeclampsia developed in 11% of women with vitamin D insufficiency vs. 6% of the remaining women (crude odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 0.9-4.1, p = 0.25).
Conclusion: In women with type 1 diabetes, preterm delivery was twice as frequent in women with vitamin D insufficiency in late pregnancy in crude analysis, but in this small study, low vitamin D was not independently associated with preterm birth or preeclampsia.
Keywords: Preeclampsia; pregnancy; preterm delivery; type 1 diabetes; vitamin D.
© 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.