[Risk factors associated with preterm birth in a second level hospital]

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. Jul-Aug 2017;55(4):424-428.
[Article in Spanish]

Abstract

Background: Preterm birth is one of the biggest problems in obstetrics and gynecology, given that it has an incidence of 10-11%. The objective was to identify the risk factors associated with a preterm birth.

Methods: A retrospective, observational, transversal and analytic case-control study was made. All premature birth incidences were determined as study objects and controls were integrated with term deliveries. A sample size of 344 patients with a control per case was calculated. A total of 688 patients were studied. Statistical analysis was descriptive, univariate and bivariate and we used the Pearson chi square test, with a p < 0.05, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

Results: The risk factors associated with a preterm labor were placenta praevia: OR = 10.2 (p = 0.005); previous preterm delivery: OR = 10.2 (p = 0.005); preeclampsia: OR = 6.38 (p = 0.00); twin pregnancy: OR = 5.8 (p = 0.000); oligohydramnios: OR = 5.8 (p = 0.000); tobacco use: OR = 4.6 (p = 0.002); premature rupture of membranes (PROM): OR = 4.1 (p = 0.000); cervicovaginitis: OR = 3 (p = 0.000); urinary tract infections (UTI): OR = 1.5 (p = 0.010).

Conclusion: Maternal history of prenatal care, preclampsia, PROM, twin pregnancy, placenta praevia, cervicovaginitis, previous preterm delivery and UTI are risk factors with statistical significance associated with preterm delivery.

Introducción: el parto pretérmino es uno de los mayores problemas en obstetricia, pues presenta una incidencia de 10-11%. El objetivo fue identificar los factores de riesgo asociados al parto pretérmino. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de casos y controles, observacional, retrospectivo, transversal y analítico. Los casos estuvieron constituidos por nacimientos prematuros y los controles por los partos a término. Se calculó un tamaño de muestra de 344 pacientes con un control por cada caso. El total de pacientes estudiados fue de 688. El análisis estadístico fue descriptivo, univariante y bivariante mediante la prueba chi cuadrada de Pearson, con una p < 0.05, razón de momios (RM) e intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%). Resultados: los factores de riesgo asociados a parto pretérmino fueron la placenta previa: RM = 10.2 (p = 0.005); el antecedente de parto pretérmino: RM = 10.2 (p = 0.005); la preeclampsia: RM = 6.38 (p = 0.00); el embarazo gemelar: RM = 5.8 (p = 0.000), el oligohidramnios: RM = 5.8 (p = 0.000); el tabaquismo = RM = 4.6 (p = 0.002), la ruptura prematura de membranas: RM = 4.1 (p = 0.000); la cervicovaginitis: RM = 3 (p = 0.000); la infección del tracto urinario: RM = 1.5 (p = 0.010). Conclusión: los antecedentes maternos, como el control prenatal, la preeclampsia, la ruptura prematura de membranas, el embarazo gemelar, la placenta previa, la cervicovaginitis, el parto pretérmino previo y la infección del tracto urinario son los factores de riesgo con mayor significación estadística.

Keywords: Preterm labor; Risk factors.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Mexico / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Premature Birth / epidemiology
  • Premature Birth / etiology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Secondary Care Centers
  • Young Adult