Non-motor features of Parkinson disease

Nat Rev Neurosci. 2017 Jul;18(7):435-450. doi: 10.1038/nrn.2017.62. Epub 2017 Jun 8.


Many of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) can be preceded, sometimes for several years, by non-motor symptoms that include hyposmia, sleep disorders, depression and constipation. These non-motor features appear across the spectrum of patients with PD, including individuals with genetic causes of PD. The neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological bases of non-motor abnormalities in PD remain largely undefined. Here, we discuss recent advances that have helped to establish the presence, severity and effect on the quality of life of non-motor symptoms in PD, and the neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological mechanisms involved. We also discuss the potential for the non-motor features to define a prodrome that may enable the early diagnosis of PD.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Brain / pathology
  • Constipation / complications
  • Depression / complications
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / physiology
  • Olfaction Disorders / complications
  • Parkinson Disease / complications
  • Parkinson Disease / diagnosis*
  • Parkinson Disease / pathology
  • Parkinson Disease / physiopathology*
  • Prodromal Symptoms*
  • Quality of Life
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / complications


  • Neurotransmitter Agents