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. 2017 Aug;137(8):1107-1113.
doi: 10.1007/s00402-017-2726-7. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Morphological Size Evaluation of the Mid-Substance Insertion Areas and the Fan-Like Extension Fibers in the Femoral ACL Footprint

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Morphological Size Evaluation of the Mid-Substance Insertion Areas and the Fan-Like Extension Fibers in the Femoral ACL Footprint

Makoto Suruga et al. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. .

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detailed anatomy of the femoral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion site, with special attention given to the morphology of the mid-substance insertion areas and the fan-like extension fibers.

Methods: Twenty-three non-paired human cadaver knees were used (7 Males, 16 Females, median age 83, range 69-96). All soft tissues around the knee were resected except the ligaments. The ACL was divided into antero-medial (AM) and postero-lateral (PL) bundles according to the difference in macroscopic tension patterns. The ACL was carefully dissected and two outlines were made of the periphery of each bundle insertion site: those which included and those which excluded the fan-like extension fibers. An accurate lateral view of the femoral condyle was photographed with a digital camera, and the images were downloaded to a personal computer. The area of each bundle, including and excluding the fan-like extension fibers, was measured with Image J software (National Institution of Health). The width and length of the mid-substance insertion sites were also evaluated using same image.

Results: The femoral ACL footprint was divided into four regions (mid-substance insertion sites of the AM and PL bundles, and fan-like extensions of the AM and PL bundles). The measured areas of the mid-substance insertion sites of the AM and PL bundles were 35.5 ± 12.5, and 32.4 ± 13.8 mm2, respectively. Whole width and length of the mid-substance insertion sites were 5.3 ± 1.4, and 15.5 ± 2.9 mm, respectively. The measured areas of the fan-like extensions of the AM and PL bundles were 27 ± 11.5, and 29.5 ± 12.4 mm2, respectively.

Conclusion: The femoral ACL footprint was divided into quarters of approximately equal size (mid-substance insertion sites of the AM and PL bundles, and fan-like extensions of the AM and PL bundles). For clinical relevance, to perform highly reproducible anatomical ACL reconstruction, the presence of the fan-like extension fibers should be taken into consideration.

Keywords: Anatomy; Anterior cruciate ligament; Fan-like extension; Femoral; Mid-substance.

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