Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2017 Jun 8;7(1):3085.
doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-03176-z.

The Connection of the Genetic, Cultural and Geographic Landscapes of Transoxiana

Affiliations
Free PMC article

The Connection of the Genetic, Cultural and Geographic Landscapes of Transoxiana

Maxat Zhabagin et al. Sci Rep. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

We have analyzed Y-chromosomal variation in populations from Transoxiana, a historical region covering the southwestern part of Central Asia. We studied 780 samples from 10 regional populations of Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Dungans, and Karakalpaks using 35 SNP and 17 STR markers. Analysis of haplogroup frequencies using multidimensional scaling and principal component plots, supported by an analysis of molecular variance, showed that the geographic landscape of Transoxiana, despite its distinctiveness and diversity (deserts, fertile river basins, foothills and plains) had no strong influence on the genetic landscape. The main factor structuring the gene pool was the mode of subsistence: settled agriculture or nomadic pastoralism. Investigation of STR-based clusters of haplotypes and their ages revealed that cultural and demic expansions of Transoxiana were not closely connected with each other. The Arab cultural expansion introduced Islam to the region but did not leave a significant mark on the pool of paternal lineages. The Mongol expansion, in contrast, had enormous demic success, but did not impact cultural elements like language and religion. The genealogy of Muslim missionaries within the settled agricultural communities of Transoxiana was based on spiritual succession passed from teacher to disciple. However, among Transoxianan nomads, spiritual and biological succession became merged.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Map of Transoxiana and the populations studied. This figure is a derivative of Central Asia atlas of natural resources (http://hdl.handle.net/11540/155) by Asian Development Bank, used under CC BY 3.0 IGO. Areas with low population density (deserts and high mountains) are shown in grey.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Frequencies of Y-chromosomal haplogroups in Transoxiana populations.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Genetic relationships of Asian (including Transoxiana) populations using 30 Y-SNPs. Multidimensional scaling plot; stress = 0.17. Populations from 18 countries are marked by colors. The ten populations from this study are shown as rhombuses within squares, while populations from the literature are indicated by circles. Blue lines link populations located along the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. Population codes are explained more fully in Supplementary Table 2. Colored cloud areas represent geographic clusters, with colors on the main plot following colors on the inset (Asian regions according to UN classification).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Haplotypic diversity of genealogical lineages within the Kozha-Sunak tribal-clan group, represented on a median-joining network.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 4 articles

References

    1. Rosser ZH, et al. Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2000;67:1526–1543. doi: 10.1086/316890. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Haber M, et al. Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon. Eur J Hum Genet. 2011;19:334–340. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.177. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Balanovsky O, et al. Genetic Differentiation between Upland and Lowland Populations Shapes the Y-Chromosomal Landscape of West Asia. Human Genetics. 2017;136:437–450. doi: 10.1007/s00439-017-1770-2. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Rtveladze, E. V. Civilizations, states, and cultures of Central Asia. (University of World Economy and Diplomacy, 2008).
    1. Baumer, C. The history of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. Vol. 1 (I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd, 2012).

Publication types

Feedback