Mitochondrial division is critical for the maintenance and regulation of mitochondrial function, quality and distribution. This process is controlled by cytosolic actin-based constriction machinery and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) on mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). Although mitochondrial physiology, including oxidative phosphorylation, is also important for efficient mitochondrial division, morphological alterations of the mitochondrial inner-membrane (IMM) have not been clearly elucidated. Here we report spontaneous and repetitive constriction of mitochondrial inner compartment (CoMIC) associated with subsequent division in neurons. Although CoMIC is potentiated by inhibition of Drp1 and occurs at the potential division spots contacting the endoplasmic reticulum, it appears on IMM independently of OMM. Intra-mitochondrial influx of Ca2+ induces and potentiates CoMIC, and leads to K+-mediated mitochondrial bulging and depolarization. Synergistically, optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) also regulates CoMIC via controlling Mic60-mediated OMM-IMM tethering. Therefore, we propose that CoMIC is a priming event for efficient mitochondrial division.