Pediatric Nephrolithiasis: A Review

Pediatr Ann. 2017 Jun 1;46(6):e242-e244. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20170517-02.


The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis is on the rise. The composition of kidney stones in children is different than in adults, as most stones in children have a composition of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate mixed with a small amount of uric acid. The symptoms of pediatric nephrolithiasis are nonspecific. Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for diagnosis; however, because of radiation exposure associated with a CT scan, ultrasonography is also an accepted modality for the diagnosis. Extensive metabolic evaluation is important to rule out an underlying metabolic disorder. Urinary decompression, medical expulsion therapy, and surgical interventions such as ureteroscopy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy are some of the options available for treating pediatric nephrolithiasis. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(6):e242-e244.].

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Humans
  • Kidney Calculi / chemistry
  • Kidney Calculi / diagnostic imaging
  • Kidney Calculi / epidemiology
  • Kidney Calculi / therapy
  • Lithotripsy
  • Nephrolithiasis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Nephrolithiasis* / epidemiology
  • Nephrolithiasis* / therapy
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Ultrasonography
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Ureteroscopy