Ethnopharmacological relevance: Achillea asiatica Serg. is a perennial herb belonging to the Asteraceae family that has long been traditionally used to treat acute intestinal and stomach inflammation, persistent fever, ulcers, wounds, and rheumatism.
Aim of the study: We investigated the effect of A. asiatica extract (AAE) on cutaneous wound healing.
Materials and methods: To assess the effect of AAE on wounds, an incisional Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model was topically treated with AAE for 2 weeks. HaCaT keratinocytes, Hs68 dermal fibroblasts, and RAW 264.7 macrophages were used for in vitro experiments. After treatment with AAE, cell viability, cell migration, and production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were investigated. mRNA expression of collagen type I and III and inflammatory cytokines was measured by RT-PCR. The effect of AAE on activation of β-catenin and other markers was determined by Western blot analysis.
Results: AAE treatment significantly increased epithelialization and accelerated wound healing in SD rats. Meanwhile, AAE and its active compounds reduced NO and PGE2 release and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages, reflecting anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, AAE and its constituents stimulated collagen expression in Hs68 fibroblasts by activating transforming growth factor-β and stimulated keratinocyte differentiation and motility by inducing β-catenin, Akt, and keratinocyte differentiation markers.
Conclusions: AAE improves skin wounds in SD rats and supports keratinocyte development.
Keywords: Achillea asiatica; Collagen; Extracellular matrix; Inflammation; Wound healing.
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