Phytochemical and biological assessments on Lipidium meyenii (maca) and Epimidium sagittatum (horny goat weed)

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017 Jan;30(1):29-36.


The effects of Lipidium meyenii (maca, LM) and Epimidium sagittatum (horny goat weed, ES) have been investigated due to their involvement in fertilization. Both of the drugs showed good results before, during and after fertilization in male and female mice. The results revealed that the crude extract of Lipidium meyenii caused a significant decrease in the no. of writhes at 300 and 500mg/kg (p<0.05) as compare to control, Epimidium sagittatum and standard drug. The gross behavioral, open field, exploratory behaviour, forced swimming test for stress, diuretic activity, chronic toxicity with the effect on reproduction of both male and female and change in body weight were also studied. The phytochemical study showed the presence of tannin, alkaloid, carbohydrate, rich protein and absence of sterol in LM, whereas ES shows presence of sterol and less protein. LS improve in muscle activity and exploratory behaviours without any toxic effects on mice and their pups. It does not have diuretic effect for first two hour but act normally after initial phase of drug therapy. Epimidium sagittatum has dual action that is at low dose it has slight stimulation action and at high dose little depressive effect. ES also has some diuretic effect. Overall these results suggest that LM is highly effective remedy for treatment of impotency and reduces stress and depression, because of dual effect ES not only suggested as an anxiolytic medicine but also effective in female hormonal disorder.

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid
  • Analgesics / isolation & purification
  • Analgesics / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / toxicity
  • Antidepressive Agents / isolation & purification
  • Antidepressive Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antidepressive Agents / toxicity
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Diuresis / drug effects
  • Diuretics / isolation & purification
  • Diuretics / pharmacology
  • Epimedium / chemistry*
  • Female
  • Fertility / drug effects*
  • Fertility Agents / isolation & purification
  • Fertility Agents / pharmacology*
  • Fertility Agents / toxicity
  • Lepidium / chemistry*
  • Male
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Pain / chemically induced
  • Pain / physiopathology
  • Pain / prevention & control
  • Pain Threshold / drug effects
  • Phytochemicals / isolation & purification
  • Phytochemicals / pharmacology*
  • Phytochemicals / toxicity
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / toxicity
  • Plants, Medicinal
  • Social Behavior


  • Analgesics
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents
  • Antidepressive Agents
  • Diuretics
  • Fertility Agents
  • Phytochemicals
  • Plant Extracts
  • Acetic Acid