Sensorimotor Control of the Shoulder in Professional Volleyball Players With Isolated Infraspinatus Muscle Atrophy

J Sport Rehabil. 2018 Jul 1;27(4):371-379. doi: 10.1123/jsr.2016-0183. Epub 2018 Jun 22.


Context: Isolated infraspinatus muscle atrophy (IIMA) affects only the hitting shoulder of overhead-activity athletes and is caused by suprascapular nerve neuropathy. No study has assessed the static and dynamic stability of the shoulder in overhead professional athletes with IIMA to reveal possible shoulder sensorimotor alterations.

Objective: To assess the shoulder static stability, dynamic stability, and strength in professional volleyball players with IIMA and in healthy control players.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Research lab.

Patients or other participants: A total of 24 male professional volleyball players (12 players with diagnosed IIMA and 12 healthy players) recruited from local volleyball teams.

Intervention(s): Static stability was evaluated with 2 independent force platforms, and dynamic stability was assessed with the "Upper Quarter Y Balance Test."

Main outcome measure(s): The static stability assessment was conducted in different support (single hand and both hands) and vision (open and closed eyes) conditions. Data from each test were analyzed with analysis of variance and paired t-test models to highlight statistical differences within and between groups.

Results: In addition to reduced abduction and external rotation strength, athletes with IIMA consistently demonstrated significant less static (P < .001) and dynamic stability (P < .001), compared with the contralateral shoulder and with healthy athletes. Closed eyes condition significantly enhanced the static stability deficit of the shoulder with IIMA (P = .04 and P = .03 for both hand and single hand support, respectively) but had no effect on healthy contralateral and healthy players' shoulders.

Conclusions: This study highlights an impairment of the sensorimotor control system of the shoulder with IIMA, which likely results from both proprioceptive and strength deficits. This condition could yield subtle alteration in the functional use of the shoulder and predispose it to acute or overuse injuries. The results of this study may help athletic trainers and physical/physiotherapists to prevent shoulder injuries and create to specific proprioceptive and neuromuscular training programs.

Keywords: dynamic stability; force platforms; proprioception; upper limb stabilometry.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Athletes
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Muscle Strength
  • Muscular Atrophy / physiopathology*
  • Proprioception*
  • Rotation
  • Rotator Cuff / physiopathology*
  • Shoulder / physiopathology*
  • Volleyball*
  • Young Adult