A phase I randomized postcoital testing and safety study of the Caya diaphragm used with 3% Nonoxynol-9 gel, ContraGel or no gel

Contraception. 2017 Aug;96(2):124-130. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2017.05.016. Epub 2017 Jun 9.


Objectives: The Caya® Diaphragm is a newly approved single-size, nonlatex diaphragm. Contragel® is a personal lubricant containing lactic acid approved in Europe and other countries for use with vaginal barrier devices. This study assessed the effectiveness in preventing sperm from penetrating midcycle cervical mucus of Caya with Contragel, Caya with 3% nonoxynol-9 (N-9) and Caya alone.

Study design: Phase I multicenter, single-blind, randomized, crossover, nonsignificant risk study at two sites: Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA, and Profamilia, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Healthy, sexually active women 18-45years old, not at risk for pregnancy due to tubal occlusion, were eligible. Each participant was seen in nine visits, completing a baseline cycle (without product use) followed by three test cycles (sequence determined by randomization), each consisting of a cervical mucus check visit and a postcoital test visit. To proceed to test cycles, the baseline postcoital test had to show adequate cervical mucus and >5 progressively motile sperm per high power field (PMS/HPF).

Results: All women had an average of <5 PMS/HPF during the test cycle of each study arm, the primary endpoint. Caya with ContraGel and Caya with N-9 reduced the average number of PMS/HPF from 22.5 to 0. Caya alone reduced the average number of PMS/HPF from 22.5 to 0.4. There were two possibly product-related mild adverse events.

Conclusion: This study supports that Caya with ContraGel is safe and functions as well as Caya with N-9 in preventing PMS from reaching midcycle cervical mucus.

Implications: A single-size diaphragm used with a personal lubricant gel containing lactic acid appears to be safe and to function as well as the same diaphragm used with N-9 in preventing PMS from reaching midcycle cervical mucus.

Keywords: Caya; ContraGel; Diaphragm; Nonoxynol-9; Postcoital test; SILCS.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Contraceptive Devices, Female / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Nonoxynol / adverse effects*
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Spermatocidal Agents / adverse effects*
  • Young Adult


  • Spermatocidal Agents
  • Nonoxynol