Risk factors in development of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: prospective study of 613 patients

Lancet. 1985 Jun 15;1(8442):1357-60. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(85)91785-4.


In a prospective study of 613 patients with cirrhosis of different aetiological types increasing age, male sex, and non-UK nationality were found to be significant independent risk factors for the progression of cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. Seropositivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and the duration and aetiology of cirrhosis were not related to the development of the disease. Age and sex were also found to be significant risk factors when UK patients alone were considered. Seropositivity for hepatitis B surface antigen may be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma only because hepatitis B virus infection is a common cause of cirrhosis.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology*
  • Female
  • Hepatitis B / complications*
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / analysis
  • Humans
  • Liver Cirrhosis / classification
  • Liver Cirrhosis / complications*
  • Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Liver Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk
  • Sex Factors
  • United Kingdom


  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens