Systemic high dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) postconditioning has long been utilized in boosting the efficacy of T cells in adoptive cell therapy (ACT) of solid tumors. The resulting severe off-target toxicity of these regimens renders local production at the tumor an attractive concept with possible safety gains. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of intratumorally administered IL-2-coding adenoviruses in combination with tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte therapy in syngeneic Syrian hamsters bearing HapT1 pancreatic tumors and with T cell receptor transgenic ACT in B16.OVA melanoma bearing C57BL/6 mice. The models are complementary: hamsters are semi-permissive for human oncolytic adenovirus, whereas detailed immunological analyses are possible in mice. In both models, local production of IL-2 successfully replaced the need for systemic recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) administration and increased the efficacy of the cell therapy. Furthermore, vectored delivery of IL-2 significantly enhanced the infiltration of CD8+ T cells, M1-like macrophages, and B-cells while systemic rIL-2 increased CD25 + FoxP3+ T cells at the tumor. In contrast with vectored delivery, histopathological analysis of systemic rIL-2-treated animals revealed significant changes in lungs, livers, hearts, spleens, and kidneys. In summary, local IL-2 production results in efficacy and safety gains in the context of ACT. These preclinical assessments provide the rationale for ongoing clinical translation.
Keywords: T cell therapy; adoptive cell therapy; immunotherapy; interleukin-2; oncolytic adenovirus.
© 2017 UICC.