Frozen shoulder is a chronic condition characterized by pain in the shoulder and restriction of movements in all directions. Some patients are left with long-term limitation of shoulder joint activity with various severities, which results in reduced quality of life. Currently, there is a paucity of literature on the molecular biology of frozen shoulder, and the molecular biological mechanism for periarthritis-induced limitation of shoulder joint movements remains unclear. Research in this field is focused on inflammation and cytokines associated with fibrosis. Repeated investigations confirmed alterations of specified inflammatory mediators and fibrosis-associated cytokines, which might be involved in the pathogenesis of frozen shoulder by causing structural changes of the shoulder joint and eventually the limitation of shoulder movements. The aim of this article is to review studies on molecular biology of frozen shoulder and provide a reference for subsequent research, treatment, and development of new drugs.
Keywords: Cytokines; frozen shoulder; limitation of movements; molecular biology.