Perifosine enhances bevacizumab-induced apoptosis and therapeutic efficacy by targeting PI3K/AKT pathway in a glioblastoma heterotopic model

Apoptosis. 2017 Aug;22(8):1025-1034. doi: 10.1007/s10495-017-1382-2.


Bevacizumab (BVZ) as an antiangiogenesis therapy leads to a transient therapeutic efficacy in high-grade glioma. However, the proapoptotic potential of BVZ has not been well elucidated, yet. There is also a tumor resistance to BVZ that is linked to post-treatment metalloproteinases and AKT activities. Herein, the association between therapeutic efficacy and putative proapoptotic activity of low-dose BVZ either alone or in combination with a specific inhibitor of AKT called perifosine (PRF), in a glioma model was investigated. BALB/c mice bearing C6 glioma tumor were treated with BVZ and PRF either alone or combined for 13 days (n = 11/group). At the end of treatments, apoptosis, proliferation and vascular density, in the xenografts (3/group) were detected by TUNEL staining, Ki67 and CD31 markers, respectively. Relative levels of cleaved-caspase3, phospho-AKT (Ser473) and matrix metalloproteinase2 (MMP2) were measured using western blotting. PRF and BVZ separately slowed down tumor growth along with the cell apoptosis induction associated with a profound increase in caspase3 activity through an AKT inhibition-related pathway for PRF but not BVZ. Unlike PRF, BVZ significantly increased the intratumor MMP2 and phospho-AKT (Ser473) levels coupled with the slight antiproliferative and significant antivascular effects. Co-administration of PRF and BVZ versus monotherapies potentiated the proapoptotic effects and reversed the BVZ-induced upregulation of phospho-AKT (Ser473) and MMP2 levels in C6 xenografts, leading to the optimal antiproliferative activity and tumor growth regression and longer survival. In conclusion, BVZ plus PRF renders a paramount proapoptotic effect, leading to a major therapeutic efficacy and might be a new substitute for GBM therapy in the clinic.

Keywords: AKT signal; Apoptosis; Bevacizumab; C6 heterotopic xenograft; Combination therapy; Glioblastoma multiforme.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Bevacizumab / administration & dosage*
  • Caspase 3 / genetics
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects
  • Glioblastoma / drug therapy*
  • Glioblastoma / genetics
  • Glioblastoma / pathology
  • Humans
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics
  • Mice
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics
  • Phosphorylcholine / administration & dosage
  • Phosphorylcholine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics*
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


  • Phosphorylcholine
  • perifosine
  • Bevacizumab
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Caspase 3
  • MMP2 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2