Red Blood Cell Invasion by the Malaria Parasite Is Coordinated by the PfAP2-I Transcription Factor

Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Jun 14;21(6):731-741.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.05.006.


Obligate intracellular parasites must efficiently invade host cells in order to mature and be transmitted. For the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, invasion of host red blood cells (RBCs) is essential. Here we describe a parasite-specific transcription factor PfAP2-I, belonging to the Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) family, that is responsible for regulating the expression of genes involved in RBC invasion. Our genome-wide analysis by ChIP-seq shows that PfAP2-I interacts with a specific DNA motif in the promoters of target genes. Although PfAP2-I contains three AP2 DNA-binding domains, only one is required for binding of the target genes during blood stage development. Furthermore, we find that PfAP2-I associates with several chromatin-associated proteins, including the Plasmodium bromodomain protein PfBDP1 and that complex formation is associated with transcriptional regulation. As a key regulator of red blood cell invasion, PfAP2-I represents a potential new antimalarial therapeutic target.

Keywords: ApiAP2 protein; ChIP-seq; DNA motif; Plasmodium falciparum; gene expression; host cell invasion; malaria; parasite; transcription factor; transcriptional regulation.

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Protozoan
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromatin / genetics
  • Chromatin / metabolism
  • DNA, Protozoan / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Erythrocytes / parasitology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genes, Protozoan
  • Histones / genetics
  • Histones / metabolism
  • Host-Parasite Interactions
  • Malaria / parasitology*
  • Nucleotide Motifs / genetics
  • Plasmodium
  • Plasmodium falciparum / genetics
  • Plasmodium falciparum / pathogenicity
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Protozoan Proteins / genetics*
  • Protozoan Proteins / metabolism*
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional
  • Transcription Factor AP-2 / genetics*
  • Transcription Factor AP-2 / metabolism*


  • Antigens, Protozoan
  • Chromatin
  • DNA, Protozoan
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Histones
  • PfARP protein, Plasmodium falciparum
  • Protozoan Proteins
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Transcription Factor AP-2