Cardiac T1 mapping in congenital heart disease: bolus vs. infusion protocols for measurements of myocardial extracellular volume fraction

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017 Dec;33(12):1961-1968. doi: 10.1007/s10554-017-1191-2. Epub 2017 Jun 15.


Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV) reflecting diffuse myocardial fibrosis can be measured with T1 mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) before and after the application of a gadolinium-based extracellular contrast agent. The equilibrium between blood and myocardium contrast concentration required for ECV measurements can be obtained with a primed contrast infusion (equilibrium contrast-CMR). We hypothesized that equilibrium can also be achieved with a single contrast bolus to accurately measure diffuse myocardial fibrosis in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Healthy controls (n = 17; median age 24.0 years) and patients with CHD (n = 19; 25.0 years) were prospectively enrolled. Using modified Look-Locker inversion recovery T1 mapping before, 15 min after bolus injection, and during constant infusion of gadolinium-DOTA, T1 values were obtained for blood pool and myocardium of the left ventricle (LV), the interventricular septum (IVS), and the right ventricle (RV) in a single midventricular plane in short axis or in transverse orientation. ECV of LV, IVS and RV by bolus-only and bolus-infusion correlated significantly in CHD patients (r = 0.94, 0.95, and 0.74; p < 0.01, respectively) and healthy controls (r = 0.96, 0.89, and 0.64; p < 0.05, respectively). Bland-Altman plots revealed no significant bias between the techniques for any of the analyzed regions. ECV of LV and RV myocardium measured by bolus-only T1 mapping agrees well with bolus-infusion measurements in patients with CHD. The use of a bolus-only approach facilitates the integration of ECV measurements into existing CMR imaging protocols, allowing for assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in CHD in clinical routine.

Keywords: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Congenital heart disease; Extracellular volume fraction; Fibrosis; Right ventricle; T1 mapping.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Contrast Media / administration & dosage*
  • Female
  • Fibrosis
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / diagnostic imaging*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / pathology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / physiopathology
  • Heart Ventricles / diagnostic imaging*
  • Heart Ventricles / pathology
  • Heart Ventricles / physiopathology
  • Heterocyclic Compounds / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Infusions, Parenteral
  • Injections
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardium / pathology*
  • Organometallic Compounds / administration & dosage*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prospective Studies
  • Young Adult


  • Contrast Media
  • Heterocyclic Compounds
  • Organometallic Compounds
  • gadolinium 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetate