Indian J Pediatr. 2017 Dec;84(12):937-944. doi: 10.1007/s12098-017-2395-0. Epub 2017 Jun 16.


Retinoblastoma represents 3% of all childhood cancers, and is the most common intraocular malignancy of childhood. It is fatal, if untreated. White eye reflex, also known as leukocoria, is the commonest sign, followed by strabismus. The pediatricians have a very important role to play in the diagnosis of this relatively rare, but easily detectable tumor. Early diagnosis yields better results. The management of retinoblastoma has gradually evolved over the past few decades, with an aim to not only preserve life and eye, but also optimize residual vision. The treatment of retinoblastoma is multimodal, with chemotherapy, focal treatment including trans-pupillary thermotherapy, cryotherapy and laser photocoagulation, radiation therapy and surgery, all playing a vital role. Intravenous chemotherapy has been the mainstay of treatment for the past two decades, and still continues to be the most extensively used eye-saving modality of treatment. Periocular and intravitreal chemotherapy have specific indications in the management of retinoblastoma. Intra-arterial chemotherapy has emerged as a promising alternative for advanced and refractory retinoblastoma, both as a primary and secondary therapy. Recent advances in genetics of retinoblastoma have also helped in improving the overall clinical management of this malignancy.

Keywords: Chemotherapy; Eye; Malignant tumor; Radiotherapy; Retina; Retinoblastoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Early Detection of Cancer
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Retinal Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Retinal Neoplasms* / epidemiology
  • Retinal Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Retinal Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Retinoblastoma* / diagnosis
  • Retinoblastoma* / epidemiology
  • Retinoblastoma* / genetics
  • Retinoblastoma* / therapy