The highly specific S1 serine protease factor D (FD) plays a central role in the amplification of the complement alternative pathway (AP) of the innate immune system. Genetic associations in humans have implicated AP activation in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and AP dysfunction predisposes individuals to disorders such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). The combination of structure-based hit identification and subsequent optimization of the center (S)-proline-based lead 7 has led to the discovery of noncovalent reversible and selective human factor D (FD) inhibitors with drug-like properties. The orally bioavailable compound 2 exerted excellent potency in 50% human whole blood in vitro and blocked AP activity ex vivo after oral administration to monkeys as demonstrated by inhibition of membrane attack complex (MAC) formation. Inhibitor 2 demonstrated sustained oral and ocular efficacy in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic AP activation in mice expressing human FD.