The aim of this retrospective and exploratory study was that the cortical sources of resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms might reveal different abnormalities in cortical neural synchronization in groups of patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI) and Parkinson's disease (PDMCI) as compared to healthy subjects. Clinical and rsEEG data of 75 ADMCI, 75 PDMCI, and 75 cognitively normal elderly (Nold) subjects were available in an international archive. Age, gender, and education were carefully matched in the three groups. The Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) was matched between the ADMCI and PDMCI groups. Individual alpha frequency peak (IAF) was used to determine the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 frequency band ranges. Fixed beta1, beta2, and gamma bands were also considered. eLORETA estimated the rsEEG cortical sources. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) classified these sources across individuals. Results showed that compared to the Nold group, the posterior alpha2 and alpha3 source activities were more abnormal in the ADMCI than the PDMCI group, while the parietal delta source activities were more abnormal in the PDMCI than the ADMCI group. The parietal delta and alpha sources correlated with MMSE score and correctly classified the Nold and diseased individuals (area under the ROC = 0.77-0.79). In conclusion, the PDMCI and ADMCI patients showed different features of cortical neural synchronization at delta and alpha frequencies underpinning brain arousal and vigilance in the quiet wakefulness. Future prospective cross-validation studies will have to test these rsEEG markers for clinical applications and drug discovery.
Keywords: Exact low resolution brain electromagnetic source tomography; mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease; mild cognitive impairment due to Parkinson’s disease; receiver operating characteristic curve; resting state electroencephalographic rhythms.