Management of parturients with Factor XI deficiency-10year case series and review of literature

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2017 Aug:215:85-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2017.06.008. Epub 2017 Jun 6.


This is an article reviewing the management of pregnant women with factor XI (FXI) deficiency. Retrospective review of the electronic records of 67 pregnancies in 25 women with FXI deficiency over a ten-year period was undertaken. All women received care at St Mary's Tertiary Referral Obstetric/Haematology Clinic for some or all of their pregnancies. Outcome measures included antenatal complications, mode of delivery, anaesthesia provided and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and management required. A positive bleeding history was identified in 50% of women prior to pregnancy. Fifteen pregnancies (22%) ended in first trimester miscarriage; there was 1 termination of pregnancy. Two pregnancies were complicated by Antepartum haemorrhage. Of the remaining 51 pregnancies there were 50 live births - 2 preterm and 48 at term. There was one antenatal (34 weeks gestation) stillbirth of a growth restricted baby and one neonatal death secondary to severe prematurity (24 weeks gestation). Twenty -five babies delivered vaginally (20 spontaneous and 5 instrumental). The remaining 26 were delivered by Caesarean section (9 elective and 17 emergency). A sub-analysis of 22 operative deliveries was reviewed; this suggested that regional anaesthesia was safe in selected women with FXI deficiency - a selection that was based on FXI level/range, presence/absence of bleeding history and intended operative intervention.Solvent detergent treated Fresh Frozen Plasma (SD-FFP/Octaplas) and Tranexamic Acid (TXA) were given to those considered vulnerable -an individualised decision made by the multidisciplinary team in accordance with BCSH guidance. Primary PPH complicated 10/51 (15%) deliveries. The commonest cause of PPH was due to atony. Secondary PPH was only seen in only one case. Bleeding in women with FXI deficiency is highly variable and, whilst it does not directly correlate with Factor XI levels, provision of replacement therapy is required if FXI levels are <15 IU/dL as per BCSH guidance. Women with Factor XI levels >40 IU/dL are considered safe for regional anaesthesia following prophylactic FFP as suggested by sub group analysis. Treatment of women with rare bleeding disorders during pregnancy should be by a multidisciplinary team of specialists, to include Haematologist, Anaesthetist and Obstetrician, all of whom have an interest in bleeding disorders in pregnancy. Decisions should then be individualised, based on the presence/absence of a bleeding history and the third trimester FXI levels. Delivery does not have to be by Elective Caesarean. With appropriate care both operative vaginal delivery and regional anaesthesia can be facilitated.

Keywords: Factor XI deficiency in pregnancy; Hemophilia C in pregnancy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antifibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Delivery, Obstetric / methods*
  • Factor XI Deficiency / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic / drug therapy*
  • Tranexamic Acid / therapeutic use*


  • Antifibrinolytic Agents
  • Tranexamic Acid