Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TFPS), which is the extract of Tremella fuciformis Berk, has previously been demonstrated to exhibit potent anti‑oxidative, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑aging effects. However, the mechanisms underlying these protective and therapeutic effects remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of TFPS on hydrogen peroxide‑induced injury of human skin fibroblasts and to elucidate the aforementioned underlying mechanisms. A hydrogen peroxide‑induced human skin fibroblast injury model was firstly established. MTT and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production assays, in addition to terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, were performed to investigate the protective effects of TFPS. Hydrogen peroxide decreased human skin fibroblast viability with a concurrent increase in ROS generation and cell apoptosis. Treatment with 0‑400 µg/ml TFPS alone for up to 48 h did not result in alteration in cell viability. Notably, TFPS pre‑treatment reduced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in hydrogen peroxide‑treated skin fibroblasts. In addition, there was profound inhibition of p16, p21, p53 and caspase‑3 expression, and activation of extracellular‑signal regulated kinase and Akt serine/threonine kinase 1, following TFPS pre‑treatment. Furthermore, it was revealed that TFPS additionally protected fibroblasts via the upregulation of SIRT1 expression, and this was abrogated by the SIRT1 inhibitor niacinamide. These results indicated that TFPS alleviated hydrogen peroxide‑induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in skin fibroblasts via upregulation of SIRT1 expression, indicating that TFPS may act as a potential therapeutic agent for oxidative‑stress‑associated skin diseases and aging.