Gene expression analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer data set show that miR-20a is upregulated in human breast cancer, especially in triple-negative subtype. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis suggests that miR-20a expression negatively correlates with the autophagy/lysosome pathway. We report here that miR-20a inhibits the basal and nutrient starvation-induced autophagic flux and lysosomal proteolytic activity, increases intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and DNA damage response by targeting several key regulators of autophagy, including BECN1, ATG16L1 and SQSTM1. Re-introduction of exogenous BECN1, ATG16L1 or SQSTM1 reverses the inhibitory effect of miR-20a on autophagy and decreases DNA damage. A negative correlation between miR-20a and its target genes is observed in breast cancer tissues. Lower levels of BECN1, ATG16L1 and SQSTM1 are more common in triple-negative cancers than in other subtypes. High levels of miR-20a also associate with higher frequency of copy-number alterations and DNA mutations in breast cancer patients. Further studies in a xenograft mouse model show that miR-20a promotes tumor initiation and tumor growth. Collectively, these findings suggest that miR-20a-mediated autophagy defect might be a new mechanism underlying the oncogenic function of miRNA during breast tumorigenesis.