In crop plants, a high-density genetic linkage map is essential for both genetic and genomic researches. The complexity and the large size of wheat genome have hampered the acquisition of a high-resolution genetic map. In this study, we report a high-density genetic map based on an individual mapping population using the Affymetrix Wheat660K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as a probe in hexaploid wheat. The resultant genetic map consisted of 119 566 loci spanning 4424.4 cM, and 119 001 of those loci were SNP markers. This genetic map showed good collinearity with the 90 K and 820 K consensus genetic maps and was also in accordance with the recently released wheat whole genome assembly. The high-density wheat genetic map will provide a major resource for future genetic and genomic research in wheat. Moreover, a comparative genomics analysis among gramineous plant genomes was conducted based on the high-density wheat genetic map, providing an overview of the structural relationships among theses gramineous plant genomes. A major stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) for kernel number per spike was characterized, providing a solid foundation for the future high-resolution mapping and map-based cloning of the targeted QTL.