Molar incisor hypomineralization: proportion and severity in primary public school children in Graz, Austria

Clin Oral Investig. 2018 Mar;22(2):757-762. doi: 10.1007/s00784-017-2150-y. Epub 2017 Jun 19.


Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and severity of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in primary school children in Graz (southeast of Austria).

Materials and methods: In 1111 children aged 6 to 12 years (mean age 9.0 ± 1.2), a wet examination of all teeth was performed by three trained examiners using a dental chair, optimal illumination, a dental mirror, and a dental explorer. All teeth with MIH lesions were registered so that different definitions of MIH were applicable. According to the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria that were considered valid at the time of the investigation, MIH was diagnosed when at least one first primary molar (FPM) was affected.

Results: MIH was present in 78 children (7.0%). In 64 children (5.8%), at least one molar and one incisor were affected (so-called M + IH). Additionally, in 9 children, only incisors were affected. In 7 affected children, teeth other than FPMs and incisors had MIH lesions. Almost an equal number of males (38) and females (40) were affected. The upper and lower molars were equally affected. The upper incisors were more frequently affected than the lower ones. Demarcated enamel opacities were the predominant types of defects.

Conclusion: The proportion of MIH was 7.0% in Graz, which is similar to other comparable trials.

Clinical relevance: This study has proven that MIH is an existing dental problem in Graz.

Keywords: Developmental defects; Enamel hypomineralization; MIH; Proportion.

MeSH terms

  • Austria / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / epidemiology*
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / pathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incisor / pathology*
  • Male
  • Molar / pathology*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Tooth, Deciduous / pathology