Lactobacillus salivarius NK02: a Potent Probiotic for Clinical Application in Mouthwash

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2018 Sep;10(3):485-495. doi: 10.1007/s12602-017-9296-4.


A specific strain of naturally occurring oral lactobacilli was isolated and identified based on morphological, biochemical, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The phylogenetic affiliation of the isolate confirmed that the NK02 strain had close association with the Lactobacillus salivarius. An effective mouthwash was developed for treatment of periodontitis and suppression of the indicator bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which is an obvious pathogen of periodontal disease. The mouthwash containing L. salivarius NK02 was tested at a dose level of 108 (colony forming units (CFU) ml-1), monitoring over a period of 4 weeks. The study was a randomized double-blind placebo control trial, and the patients were treated in two groups of control and test by using scaling and root planing (SRP) + placebo and scaling and root planing (SRP) + probiotic, respectively. It appeared that the probiotic mouthwash was able to inhibit the bacterial growth on both saliva and sub-gingival crevice and exhibited antibacterial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans. The results also showed that SRP+ probiotic treatment led to a significant decrease of gingival index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) compared with that of SRP + placebo for the probiotic group. The rate of decrease in pocket depth was displayed in the group with SRP + probiotic treatment equal to 1/2 mm, and probing pocket depth (PPD) value was decreased in the probiotic bacteria treatment group that can explain the decrease in inflammation in gingiva. Our findings suggest that probiotic mouthwash is healthy for daily use as an alternative for maintaining dental and periodontal health.

Keywords: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; Lactobacillus salivarius NK02; Periodontal diseases; Probiotic.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans / growth & development
  • Antibiosis
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lactobacillus salivarius / physiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouthwashes / administration & dosage*
  • Periodontitis / drug therapy*
  • Periodontitis / microbiology
  • Phylogeny
  • Probiotics / administration & dosage*


  • Mouthwashes