Association between characteristics of pain and stiffness and the functional status of patients with incident polymyalgia rheumatica from primary care

Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Jun;37(6):1639-1644. doi: 10.1007/s10067-017-3730-6. Epub 2017 Jun 20.


This paper aims to examine the relationship between different characteristics of pain and stiffness and the functional status of patients with newly diagnosed polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Baseline analysis of an inception cohort study was conducted. Patients aged ≥18 years, with a new diagnosis of PMR were recruited from 382 English general practices. Participants were mailed a baseline questionnaire, including separate pain and stiffness manikins and numerical rating scales (NRS), a question on their ability to raise their arms above their head and the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) to examine participants' functional status. Linear regression analysis, reported as regression co-efficients (95% confidence intervals (95% CI)), was used to assess the association of pain and stiffness with function, initially unadjusted and then adjusted for age, gender, deprivation status, smoking status, BMI, anxiety and depression. Six hundred fifty two patients responded to the baseline survey (88.5%). The majority (88.2%) reported no, or mild impairment in their functional status. Adjusted linear regression analysis demonstrated that high (NRS ≥8) pain (0.20 (95% CI 0.10-0.28)) or stiffness (0.18 (0.09-0.26)) ratings, an increasing number of sites of pain (0.18 (0.06-0.29)) or stiffness (0.19 (0.08-0.31)) and shoulder pain (0.18 (0.05-0.31)), stiffness (0.10 (0.01-0.20)) and difficulty raising arms above one's head (0.19 (0.10-0.28)) were all associated with increased functional impairment. The majority of newly diagnosed PMR patients reported no or minimal functional difficulty. However, those who experience severe or widespread pain or stiffness often have significant functional limitation in performing their daily activities and may be a subset worthy of additional focus in primary care.

Keywords: Cohort; Function; Modified health assessment questionnaire; Polymyalgia Rheumatica; Primary care; mHAQ.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pain / etiology
  • Pain / physiopathology*
  • Polymyalgia Rheumatica / complications
  • Polymyalgia Rheumatica / physiopathology*
  • Polymyalgia Rheumatica / rehabilitation
  • Primary Health Care / statistics & numerical data*
  • Severity of Illness Index