Extended Infusion of Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Children

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2017 May-Jun;22(3):212-217. doi: 10.5863/1551-6776-22.3.212.


Objectives: Extended-infusion piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) has been associated with positive clinical outcomes in adults, but similar data in children are lacking. The objective of this study was to describe efficacy outcomes with pediatric patients receiving extended-infusion TZP.

Methods: This was a retrospective case series of children aged 1 month to 17 years who had documented Gram-negative infection and received extended-infusion TZP between April 2011 and March 2012. The primary outcome was 21-day clinical cure defined as negative follow-up cultures, where available, and infection resolution.

Results: Fifty children with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 5 (2-9) years were included in the study. Patients received a median (IQR) TZP dose of 111.4 (100-112.5) mg/kg administered every 8 hours over 4 hours. Clinical and microbiologic cure were observed in 74% and 100% of patients, respectively. Patients not meeting criterial for 21-day clinical cure were younger (1 vs 7 years, p = 0.087) and had a longer length of hospital stay (23 vs 11 days, p = 0.037).

Conclusions: The majority of children in this cohort achieved 21-day clinical cure with extended-interval TZP. Those without clinical cure tended to be younger and critically ill. Additional comparative studies evaluating traditional and extended-infusion TZP in children are needed.

Keywords: beta-lactam; extended infusion; outcomes; pediatrics; piperacillin/tazobactam.