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. 2017 Sep;27(3):303-311.
doi: 10.3171/2017.1.SPINE161045. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Spine Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Metastatic Sarcoma: Patterns of Failure and Radiation Treatment Volume Considerations

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Spine Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Metastatic Sarcoma: Patterns of Failure and Radiation Treatment Volume Considerations

Andrew J Bishop et al. J Neurosurg Spine. .

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Given the relatively lower radiosensitivity of sarcomas and the locally infiltrative patterns of spread, the authors sought to investigate spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SSRS) outcomes for metastatic sarcomas and to analyze patterns of failure. METHODS The records of 48 patients with 66 sarcoma spinal metastases consecutively treated with SSRS between 2002 and 2013 were reviewed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate rates of overall survival (OS) and local control (LC). Local recurrences were categorized as occurring infield (within the 95% isodose line [IDL]), marginally (between the 20% and 95% IDLs), or out of field. RESULTS Median follow-up time was 19 months (range 1-121 months), and median age was 53 years (range 17-85 years). The most commonly treated histology was leiomyosarcoma (42%). Approximately two-thirds of the patients were treated with definitive SSRS (44 [67%]) versus postoperatively (22 [33%]). The actuarial 1-year OS and LC rates were 67% and 81%, respectively. Eighteen patients had a local relapse, which was more significantly associated with postoperative SSRS (p = 0.04). On multivariate modeling, receipt of postoperative SSRS neared significance for poorer LC (p = 0.06, subhazard ratio [SHR] 2.33), while only 2 covariates emerged as significantly correlated with LC: 1) biological equivalent dose (BED) > 48 Gy (vs BED ≤ 48 Gy, p = 0.006, SHR 0.21) and 2) single vertebral body involvement (vs multiple bodies, p = 0.03, SHR 0.27). Of the 18 local recurrences, 14 (78%) occurred at the margin, and while the majority of these cases relapsed within the epidural space, 4 relapsed within the paraspinal soft tissue. In addition, 1 relapse occurred out of field. Finally, the most common acute toxicity was fatigue (15 cases), with few late toxicities (4 insufficiency fractures, 3 neuropathies). CONCLUSIONS For metastatic sarcomas, SSRS provides durable tumor control with minimal toxicity. High-dose single-fraction regimens offer optimal LC, and given the infiltrative nature of sarcomas, when paraspinal soft tissues are involved, larger treatment volumes may be warranted.

Keywords: BED = biological equivalent dose; CTCAE = Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events; CTV = clinical target volume; GTV = gross tumor volume; LC = local control; OS = overall survival; PFS = progression-free survival; PTV = planning treatment volume; RT = radiation therapy; SHR = subhazard ratio; SSRS; SSRS = spine stereotactic radiosurgery; oncology; sarcoma; spine metastasis; spine stereotactic radiosurgery; stereotactic body radiation therapy.

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