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, 16 (1), 81

Development of Stereo Endoscope System With Its Innovative Master Interface for Continuous Surgical Operation

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Development of Stereo Endoscope System With Its Innovative Master Interface for Continuous Surgical Operation

Myungjoon Kim et al. Biomed Eng Online.

Abstract

Background: Although robotic laparoscopic surgery has various benefits when compared with conventional open surgery and minimally invasive surgery, it also has issues to overcome and one of the issues is the discontinuous surgical flow that occurs whenever control is swapped between the endoscope system and the operating robot arm system. This can lead to problems such as collision between surgical instruments, injury to patients, and increased operation time. To achieve continuous surgical operation, a wireless controllable stereo endoscope system is proposed which enables the simultaneous control of the operating robot arm system and the endoscope system.

Methods: The proposed system consists of two improved novel master interfaces (iNMIs), a four-degrees of freedom (4-DOFs) endoscope control system (ECS), and a simple three-dimensional (3D) endoscope. In order to simultaneously control the proposed system and patient side manipulators of da Vinci research kit (dVRK), the iNMIs are installed to the master tool manipulators of dVRK system. The 4-DOFs ECS consists of four servo motors and employs a two-parallel link structure to provide translational and fulcrum point motion to the simple 3D endoscope. The images acquired by the endoscope undergo stereo calibration and rectification to provide a clear 3D vision to the surgeon as available in clinically used da Vinci surgical robot systems. Tests designed to verify the accuracy, data transfer time, and power consumption of the iNMIs were performed. The workspace was calculated to estimate clinical applicability and a modified peg transfer task was conducted with three novice volunteers.

Results: The iNMIs operated for 317 min and moved in accordance with the surgeon's desire with a mean latency of 5 ms. The workspace was calculated to be 20378.3 cm3, which exceeds the reference workspace of 549.5 cm3. The novice volunteers were able to successfully execute the modified peg transfer task designed to evaluate the proposed system's overall performance.

Conclusions: The experimental results verify that the proposed 3D endoscope system enables continuous surgical flow. The workspace is suitable for the performance of numerous types of surgeries. Therefore, the proposed system is expected to provide much higher safety and efficacy for current surgical robot systems.

Keywords: Hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS); Improved novel master interface (iNMI); Minimally invasive surgery (MIS); Three-dimensional (3D) endoscope system; da Vinci research kit (dVRK).

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Control flow of the proposed surgical robot system driven by the surgeon’s intention. Software integration is based on the LabVIEW software
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Simple three-dimensional (3D) endoscope manufactured using 3D printing technique. Two complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) camera modules are used for reconstructing stereo view. 6 Built-in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of each module is used as light source. The tip of the endoscope is developed to have 30° to procure a wide range of view. The length and the diameter of the surgical instrument is designed as 300 and 10 mm, respectively
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
4-degrees of freedom (DOFs) endoscope control system (ECS). The fulcrum point motion is achieved by J1 and J2 with its two-parallel link structure. The translational motion and rolling motion are accomplished by J3 and J4, respectively
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Overall system of the da Vinci research kit (dVRK). a Controllers. b Stereo viewer. c Master tool manipulators (MTMs). d Foot pedal. e Patient side manipulators (PSMs). f Installed dVRK. dVRK is used as operation surgical robot system in this research
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Developed improved novel master interface (iNMI). a Front and back sides of the iNMI. b Case and silicone top layer to protect the iNMI. c The iNMI attached on the MTM of the dVRK system using the special holder
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
Mapping information between the iNMI and the 4-DOFs ECS. The fulcrum point motion can be achieved using one of the two iNMIs while the translational motion and rolling motion can only be performed by combination of two iNMIs’ gesture input
Fig. 7
Fig. 7
Stereo calibration and rectification processes. a Stereo calibration process. b Stereo rectification process. c Calibrated and rectified images with effective area enclosed in a pink box
Fig. 8
Fig. 8
Comparison between original images and final images. a Original images obtained. b Final images after stereo calibration, rectification, and reconstruction
Fig. 9
Fig. 9
Workspace of the proposed 4-DOFs ECS
Fig. 10
Fig. 10
System setup for the modified peg transfer task. Modified peg transfer board was developed and used for the task to evaluate the overall performance of the proposed system

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