Pulmonary delivery of synergistic combination of fluoroquinolone antibiotic complemented with proteolytic enzyme: A novel antimicrobial and antibiofilm strategy

Nanomedicine. 2017 Oct;13(7):2371-2384. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2017.06.011. Epub 2017 Jun 23.


Bacterial resistance remains a major hindrance in treatment with antimicrobial agents. Therefore, we assessed the improved antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Levofloxacin (LFX) and Serratiopeptidase (SRP) combinations in in vitro microbiological studies. Further, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of liposomal LFX in combination with SRP (LFX liposome-SRP) were performed in S. aureus infected rats. LFX at sub-MIC with SRP eradicated >90% of the preformed biofilm. The entrapment efficiency of LFX in liposome was >80% and the co-spray dried product had MMAD <5 μm. We observed high LFX concentration in the lung (3.39 μg/ml over 3 h) and AUC/MIC ≥100. In a pharmacodynamic study, untreated infected rat lungs demonstrated higher mRNA expression for inflammatory markers, cytokine levels and microbial load compared to control. Conversely, LFX liposome-SRP significantly abated these adverse repercussions. Histological findings were also in agreement with these observations. Furthermore, our findings corroborate exhibited improved antibiofilm and antimicrobial efficacy of LFX liposome-SRP in treating S. aureus infection.

Keywords: Antibiotic; Biofilm; Enzyme; Liposome; Resistance; Staphylococcus aureus.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Biofilms / drug effects
  • Drug Combinations
  • Drug Synergism
  • Female
  • Levofloxacin / administration & dosage*
  • Levofloxacin / pharmacokinetics
  • Levofloxacin / therapeutic use
  • Liposomes
  • Lung / microbiology*
  • Lung / pathology
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Peptide Hydrolases / administration & dosage*
  • Peptide Hydrolases / pharmacokinetics
  • Peptide Hydrolases / therapeutic use
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Staphylococcal Infections / drug therapy*
  • Staphylococcal Infections / pathology
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects*
  • Staphylococcus aureus / physiology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Drug Combinations
  • Liposomes
  • Levofloxacin
  • Peptide Hydrolases
  • serratiopeptidase