Objectives: We recently developed a novel minimally invasive surgical approach that combines extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and CentriMag ventricular assist device (Ec-VAD) for the treatment of cardiogenic shock as a short-term circulatory support. We compared the outcomes of this new approach to conventional CentriMag biventricular assist device (BiVAD) support through a median sternotomy.
Methods: Between July 2015 and August 2016, 22 patients were implanted with CentriMag Ec-VAD and 90 patients were implanted with conventional CentriMag BiVAD. The Ec-VAD circuit was configured with left ventricular apical cannulation via a mini-thoracotomy and femoral venous cannulation as inflows and right axillary artery cannulation as an outflow.
Results: Patients with Ec-VAD were older (58 ± 9.9 vs 53 ± 13 years, P = 0.06), had more preoperative percutaneous mechanical circulatory support use (82% vs 44%, P < 0.01) and less cardiopulmonary bypass use intraoperatively (0% vs 66%, P < 0.01). Patients who received Ec-VAD required less transfusions. The Ec-VAD group had a significantly lower incidence of major bleeding events during support (32% vs 72%, P < 0.01). Average systemic flow was similar (Ec-VAD: 5.5 ± 0.94 vs BiVAD: 5.7 ± 1.1 l/min, P = 0.4). Seventeen patients (77%) with Ec-VAD survived to the next destination compared with 66 patients (73%) with BiVAD (P = 0.45). Thirty-day survival was similar between groups (Ec-VAD 86% vs BiVAD 76%, P = 0.39), and overall 1-year survival was 61% in Ec-VAD and 55% in BiVAD (P = 0.7).
Conclusions: Ec-VAD is a unique approach for the treatment of patients in cardiogenic shock. It eliminates the need for cardiopulmonary bypass and reduces blood product utilization and bleeding events.
Keywords: Cardiogenic shock; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Minimally invasive; Ventricular assist device.
© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.