The microbiological characteristics of the chufa plant grown alone or in combination with wheat and vegetables were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial flora of chufa plants did not change significantly. The bacterial count decreased during nodule formation. The number of actinomycetes increased when chufa and wheat plants were grown together. By the end of vegetation fungi were accumulated in the chufa rhizosphere. Among the physiological groups involved in the transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds ammonifiers were predominant. At the germination stage ammonification and denitrification processes increased, cellulose-decomposing bacteria appeared, oligonitrophilic forms occurred. From the microbiological point of view chufa plants can be used in the higher plant component of the biological life support system.