Cytolytic Induction Therapy Improves Clinical Outcomes in African-American Kidney Transplant Recipients

Ann Surg. 2017 Sep;266(3):450-456. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002366.


Objective: Determine the impact of cytolytic versus IL-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA) induction on acute rejection, graft loss and death in African-American (AA) kidney transplant (KTX) recipients.

Background: AAs are underrepresented in clinical trials in transplantation; thus, there is controversy regarding the optimal choice of perioperative antibody induction in KTX to improve outcomes.

Methods: National cohort study using US transplant registry data from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009 in adult solitary AA KTX recipients, with at least 5 years of follow-up. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression were utilized to assess the outcomes of acute rejection, graft loss, and mortality, with interaction terms to assess effect modification.

Results: Twenty-five thousand eighty-four adult AAs receiving solitary KTX were included, 16,927 (67.5%) received cytolytic induction and 8157 (32.5%) received IL-2RA induction. After adjustment for recipient sociodemographics, donor, and transplant characteristics, the use of cytolytic induction therapy reduced the risk of acute rejection by 32% (OR 0.68, 0.62-0.75), graft loss by 9% (HR 0.91, 0.86-0.97), and death by 12% (HR 0.88, 0.83-0.94). There were a number of significant effect modifiers, including public insurance, panel reactive antibody, delayed graft function, and steroid withdrawal; in these groups, cytolytic induction substantially improved clinical outcomes.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate that cytolytic induction therapy, as compared with IL-2RA, reduces the risk of rejection, graft loss, and death in adult AA KTX recipients, particularly in those who are sensitized, receive public insurance, develop delayed graft function, or undergo steroid withdrawal.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alemtuzumab
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized / therapeutic use
  • Antilymphocyte Serum / therapeutic use
  • Basiliximab
  • Black or African American*
  • Daclizumab
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Graft Rejection / ethnology
  • Graft Rejection / mortality
  • Graft Rejection / prevention & control*
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Induction Chemotherapy / methods*
  • Kidney Transplantation / mortality*
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muromonab-CD3 / therapeutic use
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / therapeutic use
  • Registries
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States
  • Young Adult


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Antilymphocyte Serum
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Muromonab-CD3
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Alemtuzumab
  • Basiliximab
  • Daclizumab