Cooked Chickpea Consumption Inhibits Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice Induced with Azoxymethane and Dextran Sulfate Sodium

J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Jul;36(5):391-398. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2017.1297744. Epub 2017 Jun 28.


Scope: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption of cooked chickpea (2% and 10%) in ICR male mice in which colon cancer was induced with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium.

Methods and results: The effect of consumption of 2% or 10% cooked chickpeas on carcinogenesis-induced colon azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in ICR mice was determined. Protein oxidation and lipids were determined by colorimetric methods and oxidation of DNA through the identification of adducts 8-hydroxy-2'-desoxiguanosine and proliferation markers (proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA], Ki-67, and β-catenin), and inflammation (cyclooxygenase [COX]-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) were identified by immunohistochemistry reactions. The results showed the protective effect of daily consumption of rich cooked chickpeas in the carcinogenesis process, decreasing lipid, protein, and DNA oxidation and decreasing the expression of inflammatory enzymes (COX-2 and iNOS) as well as β-catenin, one of the most important oncogenic proteins in colon cancer. Animals that were fed with the 10% chickpea diet showed an inhibition in cellular proliferation (Ki-67 and PCNA expression).

Conclusions: The addition of cooked chickpea seed (2% and 10%) to the daily diet is proposed as a chemopreventive agent against colon cancer.

Keywords: Carcinogenesis; chemopreventive; chickpea; legumes.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Azoxymethane / toxicity*
  • Cicer* / chemistry
  • Colonic Neoplasms / chemically induced*
  • Colonic Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Cooking*
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism
  • Dextran Sulfate / toxicity*
  • Diet*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Ki-67 Antigen / genetics
  • Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / genetics
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances
  • beta Catenin / genetics
  • beta Catenin / metabolism


  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Mki67 protein, mouse
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
  • beta Catenin
  • Dextran Sulfate
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Ptgs2 protein, mouse
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Azoxymethane