Whole-body imaging of lymphovascular niches identifies pre-metastatic roles of midkine

Nature. 2017 Jun 28;546(7660):676-680. doi: 10.1038/nature22977.

Abstract

Cutaneous melanoma is a type of cancer with an inherent potential for lymph node colonization, which is generally preceded by neolymphangiogenesis. However, sentinel lymph node removal does not necessarily extend the overall survival of patients with melanoma. Moreover, lymphatic vessels collapse and become dysfunctional as melanomas progress. Therefore, it is unclear whether (and how) lymphangiogenesis contributes to visceral metastasis. Soluble and vesicle-associated proteins secreted by tumours and/or their stroma have been proposed to condition pre-metastatic sites in patients with melanoma. Still, the identities and prognostic value of lymphangiogenic mediators remain unclear. Moreover, our understanding of lymphangiogenesis (in melanomas and other tumour types) is limited by the paucity of mouse models for live imaging of distal pre-metastatic niches. Injectable lymphatic tracers have been developed, but their limited diffusion precludes whole-body imaging at visceral sites. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) is an attractive 'lymphoreporter' because its expression is strongly downregulated in normal adult lymphatic endothelial cells, but is activated in pathological situations such as inflammation and cancer. Here, we exploit this inducibility of VEGFR3 to engineer mouse melanoma models for whole-body imaging of metastasis generated by human cells, clinical biopsies or endogenously deregulated oncogenic pathways. This strategy revealed early induction of distal pre-metastatic niches uncoupled from lymphangiogenesis at primary lesions. Analyses of the melanoma secretome and validation in clinical specimens showed that the heparin-binding factor midkine is a systemic inducer of neo-lymphangiogenesis that defines patient prognosis. This role of midkine was linked to a paracrine activation of the mTOR pathway in lymphatic endothelial cells. These data support the use of VEGFR3 reporter mice as a 'MetAlert' discovery platform for drivers and inhibitors of metastasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Disease Progression
  • Endothelial Cells / metabolism
  • Female
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Humans
  • Lymphangiogenesis
  • Lymphatic Vessels / metabolism*
  • Lymphatic Vessels / pathology
  • Male
  • Melanoma / diagnostic imaging
  • Melanoma / metabolism
  • Melanoma / pathology
  • Mice
  • Midkine
  • Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnostic imaging*
  • Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology*
  • Paracrine Communication
  • Prognosis
  • Recurrence
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3 / analysis
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3 / metabolism
  • Whole Body Imaging / methods*
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

Substances

  • Cytokines
  • Midkine
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • FLT4 protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3