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. 2017 Jun 29;6(7):47.
doi: 10.3390/foods6070047.

Macular Carotenoid Supplementation Improves Visual Performance, Sleep Quality, and Adverse Physical Symptoms in Those With High Screen Time Exposure

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Free PMC article

Macular Carotenoid Supplementation Improves Visual Performance, Sleep Quality, and Adverse Physical Symptoms in Those With High Screen Time Exposure

James M Stringham et al. Foods. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The dramatic rise in the use of smartphones, tablets, and laptop computers over the past decade has raised concerns about potentially deleterious health effects of increased "screen time" (ST) and associated short-wavelength (blue) light exposure. We determined baseline associations and effects of 6 months' supplementation with the macular carotenoids (MC) lutein, zeaxanthin, and mesozeaxanthin on the blue-absorbing macular pigment (MP) and measures of sleep quality, visual performance, and physical indicators of excessive ST. Forty-eight healthy young adults with at least 6 h of daily near-field ST exposure participated in this placebo-controlled trial. Visual performance measures included contrast sensitivity, critical flicker fusion, disability glare, and photostress recovery. Physical indicators of excessive screen time and sleep quality were assessed via questionnaire. MP optical density (MPOD) was assessed via heterochromatic flicker photometry. At baseline, MPOD was correlated significantly with all visual performance measures (p < 0.05 for all). MC supplementation (24 mg daily) yielded significant improvement in MPOD, overall sleep quality, headache frequency, eye strain, eye fatigue, and all visual performance measures, versus placebo (p < 0.05 for all). Increased MPOD significantly improves visual performance and, in turn, improves several undesirable physical outcomes associated with excessive ST. The improvement in sleep quality was not directly related to increases in MPOD, and may be due to systemic reduction in oxidative stress and inflammation.

Keywords: computer vision syndrome; lutein; macular pigment; mesozeaxanthin; screen time; sleep quality; visual performance; zeaxanthin.

Conflict of interest statement

J.S. consults for the funding sponsor, discussing benefits of macular carotenoids. The funding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Percent change from baseline for MPOD and visual performance measures (noted in legend), at 6 months for both placebo and treatment groups. Error bars are +/− 1 SD. Asterisks denote statistically significant difference from placebo (p < 0.05). Definitions: MPOD = macular pigment optical density; CFF = critical flicker fusion frequency; CS = contrast sensitivity (plotted in terms of relative percentage change, not absolute sensitivity change); DG = disability glare; PSR = photostress recovery.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Percent change from baseline for physical indicators of excessive screen time (ST) (including sleep quality), at 6 months for both placebo and treatment groups. Error bars are +/− 1 SD. Asterisks denote statistically significant difference from placebo (p < 0.05).

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